Recognition of Occupational Health and Safety Hazards
This course helps the learners recognize potential health hazards that may exist in specific operations and industries. After the removal of major soils and oils by degreasing, metal parts are often treated in acid and alkaline baths to condition the parts for electroplating or other finishes.
The principal hazard in this series of operations is exposure to acid and alkaline mist released by heating, air agitation, gassing from electrolytic operation, or cross‐contamination between tanks. For many decades the principal application of degreasing technology has been in the metalworking industry for the removal of machining oils, grease, drawing oils, chips, and other soils from metal parts.
The course describes the significant occupational health problems associated with cold and vapor‐phase degreasing processes. The grinding, polishing, and buffing operations are grouped together for discussion because they all involve controlled use of bonded abrasives for metal finishing operations. The course covers the non-precision applications of these techniques.
At the end of this course, the student will be able to:
- Identify the occupational health and safety hazards in workplace
- Explain the effects of chemicals such as organic solvents.
- Discuss the difference between ionizing and non-Ionizing radiations.
- Mention the two main effects of noise.
- Describe the occupational exposure to biohazards.
- Give examples of some ergonomic hazards
- And many more.
SECTION 1: INTRODUCTION TO OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY HAZARDS
Identification of Occupational Health and Safety Hazards
Identification of occupational health and safety hazards has often come from observations of adverse health effect among workers. We can say that potential problem areas must be identified and its extent should be defined.
Classifications of Occupational Health and Safety Hazards
The various hazards which give rise to occupational injuries, diseases, disabilities or death through work may be classified as: -
- Physical Hazards
- Mechanical Hazards
Effects of Ionizing Radiation upon Human Health
Uses of Ionizing Radiation
Ionizing radiation has many uses. An X-ray is ionizing radiation, and ionizing radiation can be used in medicine to kill cancerous cells. However, although ionizing radiation has many uses the overuse of it can be hazardous to human health.
External Terrestrial Sources
Most material on earth contains some radioactive atoms, if in small quantities. But most of terrestrial non-radon-dose one receives from these sources is from gamma-ray emitters in the walls and floors when inside the house or rocks and soil when outside.
The Effects of Ionizing Radiation on Animals
The biological effects of radiation are thought of in terms of their effect on living cells. For low levels of radiation exposure, the biological effects are so small they may not be detected in epidemiological studies. The body repairs many types of radiation and chemical damage. Biological effects of radiation on living cells may result in a variety of outcomes, including:
Minimizing Health Effects of Ionizing Radiation
Although exposure to ionizing radiation carries a risk, it is impossible to completely avoid exposure. Radiation has always been present in the environment and in our bodies. We can, however, avoid undue exposure.
Noise is defined as unwanted sound. Sound is any pressure variation or a stimulus that produces a sensory response in the brain. The compression and expansion of air created when an object vibrates.
Good and sufficient lighting is aimed at promoting productivity, safety, health, well being and pleasant working conditions at an economical cost. Luminance: is the brightness on an object. Illuminance: is the amount of light, which falls on the surface. It is measured in lux.
Mechanical factors include unshielded machinery, unsafe structures at the workplace and dangerous unprotected tools are among the most prevalent hazards in both industrialized and developing countries. They affect the health of a high proportion of the workforce.
Average annual world production of chemicals amounts to an estimated 400 million tones. There are between 5 to 7 million known chemicals, however, only 70,000 to 80,000 are on the market, with 1,000 or so being produced in substantial quantities.
Ergonomics, also known as human engineering or human factors engineering, the science of designing machines, products, and systems to maximize the safety, comfort, and efficiency of the people who use them. Ergonomists draw on the principles of industrial engineering, psychology
SECTION 2: OVERVIEW OF WORK PHYSIOLOGY
People perform widely different tasks in daily work situation. These tasks must be matched with human capabilities to avoid "over loading" which may cause the employee to breakdown, suffer reduced performance capability or even permanent damage.
Up to 50% of all workers in industrial countries judge their work to be “mentally heavy”. Psychological stress caused by time pressure, hectic work, and risk of unemployment has become more prevalent during the past decade. Other factors that may have adverse psychological effects include jobs with heavy responsibility for human or economic concerns
Hazard identification is part of the process used to evaluate if any particular situation, item, thing, etc. may have the potential to cause harm. The term often used to describe the full process is risk assessment: